Each shaft drove a three-bladed 4.7-metre (15 ft) bronze propeller for a designed speed of 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph), although this varied from ship to ship. The machinery for the rest was built in Kharkiv to Italian plans. , Even though Lazar Kaganovich and Kalinin were both commissioned before the end of the war, they saw no action during the Soviet invasion of Manchuria in 1945; in any event, Lazar Kaganovich was not fully completed until 29 January 1947. But she survived and was repaired temporarily in Leningrad, stayed in drydock but defending herself meanwhile against German air attacks. The Italians guaranteed that the cruiser could make 37 knots (69 km/h; 43 mph) on trials if the size was kept under the 7200-tonne limit. She was renamed Petropavlovsk on 3 August 1957 after Lazar Kaganovich was purged from the government after an unsuccessful coup against Nikita Khrushchev that same year. However in April German rail artillery and field artillery added their weight to the Luftwaffe, and the cruiser underwent a real hell in April. The machinery for Kirov was shipped from Italy (being diverted from the contract for the Italian cruiser Eugenio di Savoia).  She sailed to Riga on 22 October 1940 when the Soviet Union began to occupy Latvia; the following day she sailed for Liepāja. It still served until the 60s. She was under repair until 20 December 1946. Their armor scheme was singular, with a joint between the armour deck and the belt. This was probably a weight-saving measure applied during construction. The turret and barbette armour was also 50 mm thick. Overall Project 26 design was faithful to the Italian ‘tin-clad’ armor of the time and the ship was vulnerable down to under 10 km (6.2 mi) to destroyer shells. Quite Italian-looking in their design, the Kirov and Voroshilov however had another singularity, their square prow. Maxim Gorky tested the first Soviet naval helicopter, the Kamov Ka-10, in December 1950 and began her refit in mid-1953. Like battleships, modern warships just do not stack up to these titles, except for the Project 1144.2 Kirov Class nuclear cruisers, of which Admiral Nakhimov is one. They were withdrawn from service in the 1960s. Deck, belt, barbettes 50 mm (2 in), turrets 76 mm (3 in), conning tower 152 mm (6 in). She was modernized under Project 33M from 11 October 1963 to 1 December 1965. Furthermore Kirov produced only 113,500 shaft horsepower (84,600 kW) on trials while Voroshilov made 122,500 shp (91,300 kW) and was almost a full knot faster. They were only slightly longer at 191.4 m (627 ft 11 in) overall and had a deep draft of 6.30 m (20 ft 8 in) at full load. A double bottom extended past the armored traverse bulkheads and a thin longitudinal bulkhead provided some measure of protection against flooding. They were therefore completed after the conflict in 1949-50. Twenty large BB-1 and thirty small BM-1 depth charges were carried although no sonar was fitted for the Project 26 and Project 26bis ships. 2008 | New tool + Actions Stash. So they even never met a 10,000 ton displacement fully loaded, let alone standard. The Soviet Union designated its Kiev-class and Kuznetsov-class ships as "aircraft-carrying cruisers" because these ships were armed with P-500 and P-700 cruise missiles, which also form the main armament of the Slava-class cruiser and the Kirov-class battlecruiser. The Project 26bis ships carried nine 21-K mounts and the Project 26bis were built with an additional ten fully automatic 37-millimetre (1.5 in) 70-K AA guns with a thousand rounds per gun. Kirov— Soviet promo premium Tier V cruiser. Naval Forces & Industry news Naval and Maritime Exhibitions News Focus - Analysis - Photo report Naval Forces Vessels & Equipmen... Titan LNG charters in 5,200 cu.m LNG bunkering vessel, Sailors hear tale of gallantry at airport, Beijing warns off US warship from South China Sea islands, CNO Asks Fleet for Moment of Silence in Honor of USS Indianapolis 75th Anniversary, SuperTermoli (ST) 60 MMI - The successor of Hellenic Navy UDC's ST60 fast interceptor. They were mated on the same mount, therefore no individual elevation was possible. Three series of ships pairs were built with gradual improvements, a bit like the Italian Condotierri class. The Kirovs carried two aircraft, but with imported German catapults. In fact the Kirov’s catapults were landed to carry more AA guns. Also based on Italian designs, the Kirovâ€™s were based on the Italian light cruiser Raimondo Montecuccoli. Nominal capacity was 106-tonnes per hour of superheated steam, working at 25 kg/cm2 (2,452 kPa; 356 psi) of pressure. Impressed by this firepower increase, the Soviet committee approved the blueprints on November 1934 as Project 26. During wartime, their 45 mm guns were removed and replaced by 37 mm guns. A name made even more famous at the peak of the cold war in the 1980s with the arrival of a class of giant missile battlecruisers. he jumped on a mine in November 1942 and was sent for repairs to Batum, but in early 1945 he was still there. Her trials were a disappointment as her Italian-built turbines initially had minor defects, and she was 1 knot (1.9 km/h; 1.2 mph) slower than guaranteed. In May she supported Soviet troops around Kerch and the Taman Peninsula while helping to transfer the 9th Naval Infantry Brigade from Batumi to Sevastopol. These Heinkel K-12 catapults were purchased in 1937 and could traverse 360°. She was reclassified as a training cruiser on 2 August 1961, regularly visited Poland and East Germany, and was sold for scrap on 22 February 1974. The ships had some differences in sensor and weapons suites: Kirov came wit… , While Voroshilov was laid down first, Kirov was the prototype for the class and was completed first. Repaired with the bow from the suspended Frunze, she resumed service at the end of 1944. Just after her repairs were completed she assisted Soviet forces landing behind German lines at the so-called "Malaya Zemlya" at the end of January 1943. , Kirov was damaged by a German magnetic mine while leaving Kronstadt on 17 October 1945. Voroshilov reach a full knot more on trials but designed top speed was 36 knots (67 km/h; 41 mph). The Soviet TB-7 geared turbines proved to be more powerful and more economical than the originals. After the first two ships, armor protection was increased and subsequent ships are sometimes called the Maxim Gorky class. Kirov (Russian: Киров) was a Project 26 Kirov-class cruiser of the Soviet Navy that served during the Winter War, World War II and into the Cold War.She attempted to bombard Finnish coast defense guns during action in the Winter War, but was driven off by a number of near misses that damaged her.She led the Evacuation of Tallinn at the end of August 1941, before being … She remained there for the rest of the Winter War and afterwards was under repair at Kronstadt from October 1940 to 21 May 1941.  For most of the rest of the war both cruisers were blockaded in Leningrad and Kronstadt by Axis minefields and could only provide gunfire support for the defenders during the Siege of Leningrad and support for the Soviet Vyborg–Petrozavodsk Offensive in mid—1944. Learn how your comment data is processed. The Italians initial proposal was woefully under-protected. Refitted from November 1949 to April 1953, her machinery was completely overhauled, with her radars, fire control systems and anti-aircraft guns being replaced by the latest Soviet systems. Pressured steam came from six license-built Yarrow-Normand type water-tube boilers. The Kirov Class of guided missile cruisers are so large and heavily armed that they are often referred to as battle cruisers by naval experts and the media. These two ships served during the war and survived. The damage reduced her speed to 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) and she had to be steered by her engines. She survived the war, withdrawn from active service in 1958. Gnevny sank, while Gorky made it to port before being transferred, with assistance, to Tallinn and later to Kronstadt. Both flanks were closed by a waterline belt. They displaced 7,890 tonnes (7,765 long tons) at standard load, and 9,436 tonnes (9,287 long tons) at full load. Their 45 mm AA artillery received two additional mounts. Gorkiy hit a mine in June 1941 and lost her bow. The British Types 281, 291 and the American SG radars were used for air search. Similarly the deck edge was also tapered down to about 25 mm for its outermost 200 mm. The Project 26bis ships (Gorkiy class) carried the same turrets with with improved 21-K mounts. , Both Kirov and Maxim Gorky were transferred to the Gulf of Riga on 14 June 1941, shortly before the beginning of Operation Barbarossa. Admiral Lazarev, the world’s largest nuclear cruiser, will be sent for disposal this August, according to the Russian Interfax news agency. ", The Kirovs were designed to carry two aircraft, but German catapults had to be imported. Soviet cruiser Kirov, the lead ship of the Kirov-class cruisers, launched in 1936; Kirov-class battlecruiser, a Soviet nuclear-powered cruiser class . It should be noted that USSR also had the heavy cruiser Tallin in service by 1943, a former German heavy cruiser of the Hipper class, Lützow. The turret designer afterwards claimed it was even possible to fit three barrels instead of two, although solidarity. In 1980, the Soviet Union completed construction of the first of four Kirov-class cruisers. The Gorkiy was completed in Ordonikidze Yard in November 1940 and the Molotov in June 1941. This was the main reason it delayed the start of construction until 22 October 1935 for Kirov, laid down at Ordzhonikidze Yard, Leningrad and Voroshilov at Marti, Nikolayev, on 15 October 1935. Another problem was that the Italian design had to be adapted to use the Soviet preference for a mix of longitudinal framing for the hull framing amidships and transverse framing for the ends, while also reinforcing the hull structure to withstand the more-severe weather conditions that the Soviets commonly encountered. Her superstructure was badly damaged by a Force 12 typhoon on 19 September 1957 and she was deemed uneconomical to repair and sold for scrap on 6 February 1960. Molotov was in the same position by 1942. For the later class of nuclear-powered missile cruisers, see, "Russian 180 mm/60 (7.1") B-1-K Pattern 1931 180 mm/57 (7.1") B-1-P Pattern 1932 180 mm/56 Pattern 1933", Individual ship histories on navsource.narod.ru, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kirov-class_cruiser&oldid=1001250929, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Project 26, Project 26bis, Project 26bis2, This page was last edited on 18 January 2021, at 21:59. This second class was closely modelled after the previous Kirov. The catapults, however, were removed from all ships by 1947. , The belt extended 121 m (397 ft 0 in) or 64.5% of the ship's length. Project 1144.2 Orlan Kirov class Guided Missile Cruiser (Nuclear Powered) In December 2011 it was reported that the Russian Defense Ministry was planning to … 1000 rounds were provided for each one. They provided plans of their latest design, the Raimondo Montecuccoli-class cruisers to be studied. After the first two ships, armor protection was increased and subsequent ships are sometimes c… Orlan-class cruisers of project 1144 are a symbol of the Soviet Navy and a good example of protracted design and specification of technical projects. This was planned much like Kirov's refit, although her displacement was to increase 1,000 tonnes (984 long tons) from torpedo bulges, with consequent penalties to her speed and range. Two Heinkel K-12 catapults were bought in 1937 for Kirov and Voroshilov. 2 Parsons turbines, 6 Yarrow-Normand boilers, 113,000 hp. They had a beam of 17.66 m (57 ft 11 in) and at full load a draft of 6.15 m (20 ft 2 in). Required fields are marked *. The gun complete with its pedestal, weighed 507 kg (1,118 lb).  Their single rudder meant that they were not very maneuverable. In the Strangereal universe, multiple countries were known to operate battle cruisers, most notably the Kirov-class. The Soviets borrowed the machinery of the later Duca d’Aosta-class cruisers on paper (nominal 10,000 hp) but struggled to fit these inside the smaller hull. This had a more advanced Gorizont-2 computer and Shar vertical gyroscope. They were put into service in the Pacific fleet, but remained inactive during the short hostilities against Japan in July-August 1945. A ZK-1a catapult was installed aboard Molotov in 1943, and she conducted successful experiments with a catapult-launched Supermarine Spitfire fighter. Like Italian cruisers this was a simple twin-shaft-unit machinery layout. Two more were completed by 1988; the fourth unit was not commissioned until 1998 due to a lack of funds for construction. It has been speculated that "This seam in the protection, representing a small target area, may simply have served to save weight and simplify construction. Molotov and Kaganovich replaced their launchers with the more-modern 1-N mount during the war. It was reduced to a simple pole mast in the later ships and the superstructure enlarged to accommodate the fire control facilities formerly housed in the foremast.  Kirov and Voroshilov were fitted with a massive quadruped foremast, but this proved to restrict the view from the conning tower as well as the fields of fire of the 100 mm anti-aircraft guns and greatly increased their silhouette. Its total height was 3.4 m (11 ft 2 in), of which 1.33 m (4 ft 4 in) was below the designed waterline. These B-1-P guns fired a 97.55-kilogram (215.1 lb) shell at 900–920 m/s (3,000–3,000 ft/s) muzzle velocity. The anti-aircraft armament was controlled by the Gorizont-1 system with a SO-26 computer, Gazon vertical gyroscope and a pair of SPN-100 directors on each side of the superstructure.  Kirov provided gunfire support during the defense of Tallinn and served as the flagship of the evacuation fleet from Tallinn to Leningrad at the end of August 1941. She fired only 35 rounds before she was damaged by a number of near misses and had to return to the Soviet naval base at Liepāja for repairs. The Italians pointed out that the guarantee only applied if she displaced 7200 tonnes or less, and she was overweight by over 500 tonnes (490 long tons; 550 short tons). The end result was the blast affected their accuracy terribly. For the later and heavier class, see Kirov class battlecruiser. Each turret and the director had DM-6 rangefinders which allowed multiple targets to be engaged using a combination of local and central fire control. The deck edge was also tapered down to 25 mm. It has been judged too thin to withstand a torpedo's detonation, but possibly the far-side bulkhead might survive intact, which would cause a list from asymmetrical flooding. Kirov Class (Peter the Great) project 1144.2 heavy missile cruisers are designed to engage large surface targets. He remained in service until 1976-77 as a training ship. Following the October Revolution and the subsequent Russian Civil War, Soviet industry was not capable of designing large, complex warships by itself and sought foreign assistance. The loss of three destroyers to German aircraft attempting to interdict the German evacuation of the Taman Bridgehead on 6 October 1943 caused Stalin to forbid the deployment of large naval units without his express permission and this meant the end of Voroshilov's active participation in the war. The machinery for Kirov was directly shipped from Italy (Initially planned for the Eugenio di Savoia). They served until the end of the 1960s alongside the following Sverdlov class, the last Soviet conventional cruisers, in service until the 1990s for some. The first modern interwar cruisers built in USSR were the Kirov class. Optimal working temperature was 325 °C (617 °F). They did mount the Arktur underwater acoustic communication system. Kirov followed her to Tallinn at the end of the month, after being lightened to pass through the shallows of Moon Sound. Nameplates. The Kirov was sent to Finland in 1939, carrying out coastal bombing, before joining Tallinn for his defense after the German invasion of June 1941, then returned to the defense of Leningrad, bombed by the Luftwaffe and badly damaged, then again beginning 1942, he was repaired and resumed service at the end of 1943, supporting the Leningrad winter counter-offensive in 1944. Kalinin and Kaganovich were launched at Komsomolsk on the Amur, but were towed to Vladivostok for completion because of their draft. , The secondary armament consisted of six single 56-caliber 100-millimetre (3.9 in) B-34 anti-aircraft guns with 325 rounds per gun fitted on each side of the rear funnel in all ships except the Project 26bis2 which used eight single 52-caliber 85-millimetre (3.3 in) 90-K guns with 300 rounds per gun when the B-34 program ran into problems. They proved to be unsuitable for rough-weather landings and were disembarked when Operation Barbarossa began. The Maxim Gorkiy repaired in Kronstadt (cc). Military. , The Project 26 class ships were 191.3 m (627 ft 7 in) long overall. The Kirov class's main weapons are 20 P-700 Granit (SS-N-19 Shipwreck) missiles mounted in deck, designed to engage large surface targets. The Navy reevaluated the scope of the work in 1955, deemed it insufficient to create a fully modern ship, and suspended the refit. The idea was to have a bit more range and hitting power than the classic 6-in while being a bit faster than the harder-hitting 8-in. Kirov Class Heavy Missile Cruiser White Ensign Models 1:350 35117 . She was sold under provisions of the Germano-Soviet pact in 1939 and renamed Petropavlovsk. The first two cruisers of the Kirov class were the first laid down in the interwar for the Soviet Navy. Air defense is provided by twelve octuple S-300F launchers with 96 missiles and a pair of Osa-MA batteries with 20 missiles each. Kalinin and Kaganovich received the Lend-Lease ASDIC-132 system, which the Soviets called Drakon-132, as well as the experimental Soviet Mars-72 sonar system. On 2 August her stern was blown off by torpedo bombers acting in concert with Italian MAS torpedo boats. In the end the arrangement only allows the ship to stay afloat, but listing by some measure. And they were of Italian design. The Kirov-class cruisers are a class of very large missile-armed cruisers built by the Soviet Union (and one more later, by Russia) between 1980 and 1998.These ships are the largest surface combatants put to sea since the 1940s, being longer than a South Dakota-class battleship at 847 feet and more massive than any previous cruiser (not including battlecruisers … The voroshilov participated in various coastal bombing missions after June 1941, was badly damaged in October by bombers, was sent to Poti for repairs, and left in February 1942 to support the winter counter-offensive. Molotov was defending the Black Sea. Oil capacity ranged between both ships from 600 to 650 tonnes but it diverged at full load at 1,150 versus 1,660 tonnes, even 1,750. Rendition of the Kirov in world of warships. She is the fourth of four Kirov-class battlecruisers completed (five were planned, the last being cancelled in October 1990). 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