Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, was executed on Tower Hill. ; 17th August » Gaspar de Borja y Velasco is made a cardinal by Pope Paul V. The Industrial Revolution has been transforming much of the landscape of the Midlands and the North of England with smoky factories, huge new industrial towns, canals and now, in their infancy, railways. This treaty between Scotland and England allowed the Scots to stay in Durham and Northumberland until a final settlement was concluded. At home, Britain is now criss-crossed by a network of railways connecting the main towns. Charles needed money to finance the war with France and Spain and reluctantly recalled Parliament. In January 1642 Charles made what was the most foolish move of his reign. The battle lasted just three hours and saw the death of most of the Royalist foot soldiers. ; 18th October » Signing of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) e.g Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of the Austrian Succession. The Execution of Charles I and the Interregnum 1646–1660. By 1789, the Industrial Revolution had began, a development which would in due course utterly transform first Britain, then the world. The Parliamentarian commander, Edward Montague, positioned his army on the north-eastern ridge. The Royalists suffered a number of losses and were driven back. Meanwhile the Royalists managed to hold off the attack by Montague. World War 2 (1939-45) saw the inspirational leadership of prime minister Winston Churchill, the mass bombing of all Britain’s major cities and the total mobilization of her economy and society for war. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe, and, when it ended, the … Its immediate cause was the imposition of the poll tax of 1381, which brought to a head the economic unrest that had been growing since the middle of the century. Historical Events for the Year 1748. In 1618, warfare arose in several European nations between Catholics and Protestants. When the armies were a few miles apart, Prince Rupert persuaded Charles to take to the high ground at Edgehill. He also tried to smooth things between Parliament and the army in 1647 when the army mutinied and refused to disband. In a bid to raise more money, Charles now imposed the tax on inland towns as well. Events. The British empire is at the height of its power, but it is just about the enter the terrible World War 1. High unemployment blighted the industrial scene in the post-war years, made worse in Great Depression of the 1930’s. Re-took Lichfield and Gainsborough, and held Cornwall, Newark and Devises. Waller then turned his attention to the Parliamentary infantry who stood firm until a force led by Hopton attacked them from behind. The stage was set for civil war. This was seen as a move towards Rome and evidence of the King’s Catholic leanings. By around 600 these had coalesced into a small number of larger kingdoms. Parliament disliked Buckingham and resented his level of power over the King. Charles instructed his attorney-general to issue a charge of treason against one peer and five members of the Commons including Pym and Hampden. What happened the last time Saturn Jupiter aligned: History and the Great Conjunction from 1623. In 1623 he had been responsible for taking England to war with Spain and parliament used this to bring a charge of treason against him. Oct 24, 1648. A detailed account of the Commonwealth: 1648-1660 that includes includes images, quotations and the main facts of this period. The first half of the fourth century was a period of peace and prosperity – some of the largest and most beautiful Romano-British villas date from this time. Knowing that he had a lot of support the Royalist commander, William Cavendish, Duke of Newcastle, decided to try and enclose the Parliamentarian army in Bradford. Friedrich Schiller's Wallenstein trilogy (1799) is a fictional account of the downfall of this general. Villas scattered throughout the countryside show their increasing prosperity as they grew in size over the generations. Charles I starts another civil war. The wars left England as one of the few countries in Europe without a monarch, and many of the factions of the war were sidelined. The wars deeply divided people at the time, and historians still disagree about the real causes of the conflict, but it is clear that Charles was not a successful ruler. A masterful 228 from Joe Root gave England a huge lead in Galle before Sri Lanka rallied Tim de Lisle and Rob Smyth Joe Root is giving an interview. Richard Cavendish | Published in History Today Volume 48 Issue 10 October 1998 The Westphalia area of north-western Germany gave its name to the treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War, one of the most destructive conflicts in the history of Europe. The Petition was designed to protect subjects from any further taxation unauthorised by Parliament. Buckingham had led a failed mission to Cadiz and it appeared that he was planning to help the French to put down the Protestant Huguenot uprising. They eventually led to civil wars, first with the Scots from 1637, in Ireland from 1641, and then England (1642-46 and 1648). The supporters of the King were called Cavaliers because many of them fought on horseback. The members of parliament wanted to make sure that Charles did not dismiss them. Robert Devereux, third Earl of Essex, had marched from London to Gloucester to re-supply a Parliamentary army. Catholics, most of the Nobles and gentry, about half of all Members of Parliament, the poorer areas of the North and West. Events. The flame from this would then enter the barrel of the gun and ignite the gunpowder that had been poured into it and the lead ball would be fired. Then the lead ball would be put in followed by wadding to hold the ball in place. However, Langdale’s cavalry had not fared so well, they had been pushed back by Cromwell. In 1653, at the head of an army, Cromwell marched into Parliament and dismissed the members. Browse historical events, famous birthdays and notable deaths from Jul 1648 or search by date, day or keyword. People were forced to choose sides and on 22nd August 1642, the King raised his standard at Nottingham. Charles sent his wife Henrietta Maria to the Continent to enlist Catholic support for his cause against Parliament. The early years of their rule saw a continued expansion of trade, the colonization of large areas of Ireland, the beginnings of the settlement of America, and also a growing rift between the extravagant Stuart court and the Puritan-dominated parliament. The overall outcome of the English Civil War was the trial and execution of Charles I, then the exile of Charles II, and finally the replacement of the English monarchy with the Commonwealth of England and the Protectorate under the rule of Oliver Cromwell and his son Richard. the Royalist commander, William Cavendish decided to try and enclose the Parliamentarian army in Bradford. This tax was paid by coastal towns to pay for the upkeep of the Royal Navy. As of the start of 1648, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. National Covenant and Book of Common Prayer. However, the King dismissed parliament in order to save his favourite. Below is a description of English Civil War weapons. Thomas Fairfax meets the King beyond Nottingham and escorts him to Holdenby House in Northamptonshire. In 1641, news reached London that the Catholics were revolting. The Royalists were able to easily force the split Parliamentarians to retreat to Bradford. The Anglo-Saxons established a multitude of small kingdoms in eastern Britain. Browse historical events, famous birthdays and notable deaths from Apr 1648 or search by date, day or keyword. The battle was a stalemate with neither side able to advance. Mar 11 The Frondeurs (French rebels) and the French government sign the Peace of Rueil. By this date Europeans are making their presence felt across the world. Aiming was difficult and the cannon were more effective as a means of instilling fear into the enemy than actually causing damage. Pikes were supposed to be sixteen feet in length but often soldiers sawed a few feet off the ends to make them easier to carry. 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