A meta-analysis of 64 studies of lung cancer incidence found that risk for the disease increased among people with lower socioeconomic status as evidenced by three different indicators: low education, low occupation status, and low income (Sidorchuk et al., 2009). She offered the following caution to anyone concerned with alleviating health disparities: We do a disservice to the weight of evidence, past and present, on social inequalities in health if we suggest that what chiefly hampers efforts to promote social equity in health is a lack of knowledge, whether of the social patterning of health, or trends, or pathways. Mortality is an essential population health outcome measure. Durand et al. It embraces original papers from the full range of disciplines concerned with investigating the relationship between ‘ethnicity’ and ‘health’ (including medicine and nursing, public health, epidemiology, social sciences, population sciences, and statistics). First, different groups can have access or be exposed to different kinds of health information, which may either exacerbate or potentially ameliorate disparities depending on the nature of the coverage. Future research and practice in health disparities is ripe with opportunity. One is the basis on which groups are being compared. Every year the National Cancer Institute collects and publishes data based on patient demographics. They found that most studies that investigated the relationship between health literacy and health disparities focused on racial/ethnic disparities. The journal also covers issues of culture, religion, gender, class, migration, lifestyle and racism, in so far as they relate to health and its anthropological and social aspects.” (http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=aimsScope&journalCode=ceth20), Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice: “The Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice is a refereed online journal that explores the dimensions of health disparities globally. (2010) studied the impact of four preventable risk factors (smoking, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and body fat) on life expectancy across eight subgroups in the United States known as the “eight Americas” (Asians, below-median-income Whites living in the Northland, middle America, poor Whites living in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley, Native Americans living on reservations in the West, Black middle-America, poor Blacks living in the rural South, and Blacks living in high-risk urban environments). Additional examples of health disparities between groups by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, sex, and other factors will become apparent in the section on morbidity and mortality that follows. Currently, there are 10 of these centers in the United States. In a comprehensive review article, Niederdeppe, Bigman, Gonzales, and Gollust (2013) pursued four objectives: “(a) identify key outcomes and audiences for communication about health disparities; (b) describe what is known about public awareness of health disparities; (c) review selected research on the content of communication about health disparities in the mass media, the effects of that communication, and opportunities for use of mass media technology in communication about health disparities; and (d) identify priorities for future research to understand how communication about health disparities can shape concern and action to reduce health disparities” (pp. The causal effects of policies and programs related to vaccines, vehicle safety, toxic substances, pollution, legal and illegal drugs, and health behaviors are difficult to measure. Such factors would be those that (a) are related to the disparate health outcomes targeted for change, (b) are malleable, and (c) are potentially able to be improved by communication strategies such as tailored interventions or mass media campaigns. Simply put, poorer, less educated populations are less healthy than more affluent, educated populations. Contracting the disease makes it even harder for these adults to improve their personal economic condition and that of their families. This report investigates health disparities in the United Kingdom related to socioeconomic status, ethnic status, and sex; it also makes recommendations to address the social determinants of health underlying the disparities. Foster transdisciplinary collaborations that integrate evidence from basic biomedical science with social, behavioral, and population science methodologies in intervention design and outcomes assessment. Expand efforts to dismantle historical and contemporary drivers of stigmatization and discrimination of persons who are members of disparate populations. Health inequities are differences in health status or in the distribution of health resources between different population groups, arising from the social conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age. The exorbitant costs of NCDs are forcing millions of people into poverty annually, stifling development. The authors included 36 studies in their review, 31 of which were conducted in the United States. Health disparities are similarities in health outcomes between groups. Danaei et al. Both gender differences and gender inequalities can lead to disparities in health outcomes and access to health care. Efforts to explore underlying causes of health disparities and to describe interventions that have been undertaken to address racial and ethnic health disparities are featured. The Principal Investigators of the CPHHDs wrote an editorial for the American Journal of Public Health in which they presented their “bold new vision” for health disparities intervention research. Their objectives are “to develop and test multilevel interventions to reduce health disparities, to use community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles, to train a new generation of transdisciplinary researchers in collaborative team science, and to promote translation and broad dissemination of evidence-based strategies into practice and policy” (Cooper et al., 2015, p. S374). Design and evaluate rigorous multilevel interventions to change both individual behavior and the social, policy, and built environments; assess multidirectional influences of interventions. Findings also showed a main interaction effect between ethnicity and racial identity conformity attitudes and mental health outcomes with high conformity linked to increased perceived stress for Latino Caribbeans and Black Caribbeans compared to African Americans. The European Parliament has estimated that losses linked to health inequities cost around 1.4% of gross domestic product (GDP) within the European Union – a figure almost as high as the EU's defense spending (1.6% of GDP). Differences in rates of avoidable mortality between population groups reflect differences in people getting the help that they need to address life-threatening health risks and illnesses. Methodological advances in identifying, defining, and measuring health disparities are needed to enhance the quality of our research. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication, College of Communication and Information, University of Kentucky, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, Office of Minority Health & Health Equity, Rockefeller Foundation and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Gender (Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Studies), Incidence and Prevalence of Morbidity and Mortality, Health Literacy and Health Information Seeking, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.222, http://www.tandfonline.com/action/journalInformation?show=aimsScope&journalCode=ceth20, http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jhdrp/, http://www.springer.com/medicine/journal/40615, http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/projects/fair-society-healthy-lives-the-marmot-review, http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0004/109759/EHFA5-E.pdf, http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/population-health/adler.html, Health disparities and health equity: Concepts and measurement, Specifying race-ethnic differences in risk for psychiatric disorders in a US national sample, A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of behavioural smoking cessation interventions in selected disadvantaged groups, Racial and ethnic approaches to community health: Reducing health disparities by addressing social determinants of health, http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dch/programs/reach/pdf/final_reach_fact-sheet-092012_tag508.pdf, Cancer coverage in general-audience and Black newspapers, The promise of prevention: The effects of four preventable risk factors on national life expectancy and life expectancy disparities by race and county in the United States, Migration, social mobility and common mental disorders: Critical review of the literature and meta-analysis, Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection among people who inject drugs: An international systematic review and meta-analysis, Conceptual approaches to the study of health disparities, Race and ethnicity in public health research: Models to explain health disparities, Do interventions designed to support shared decision-making reduce health inequalities? Reducing inequalities should allow everyo… CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report—United States, 2011. In short, more and better research is needed if we are to advance our knowledge and build a cumulative science of health disparities. Investigate healthcare disparities in your state (if you are currently living overseas, use the last state you lived in). In terms of policy, requiring seatbelt use, restricting smoking areas, and increasing tax on alcoholic beverages all can have a positive impact on health. This is a program that was started in 2003 with the support of the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the National Institute on Aging, and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research and continued in 2009 by the National Cancer Institute; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. Krieger argued, however, that such relationships had been revealed long ago, citing studies by Louis René Villérmé in 1826 and Friedrich Engels in 1844 that linked mortality to poverty. Promising studies that are ongoing or studies that have longer term data are welcome, as are studies that serve as lessons for best practices in eliminating health disparities. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. Pre-reform differences in outcomes are perhaps due to unobserved differences across states that contaminated the previous, naive estimate. The studies briefly reviewed next provide examples of the extent to which different groups have different experiences with the variety of determinants of health. Individual behavioral risk factors are numerous, involving such things as alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and risky sexual behavior resulting in sexually transmitted infections and unplanned/early pregnancy. Providing a brief highlight of the literature, Harrington (2013) showed the answer is yes: Koh et al. There are numerous theoretical models in the literature that explain the etiology of health disparities. There are several important points to keep in mind when considering differences in morbidity and mortality. Health inequalities arise because of the conditions in which we are born, grow, live, work and age. Nam, Janson, Stotts, Chesla, and Kroon (2012) conducted a meta-analysis of 12 studies investigating the impact of culturally tailored diabetes education for ethnic minorities. As established in the section on the discussion of the literature below, which revealed a staggering 13,800 academic journal articles published on “health disparities” between 2010 and 2015, research efforts to identify, describe, and reduce health disparities are robust. Immigrant paradox. People with low health literacy may not understand information they receive from their health care providers or from media sources, so the question of whether or not health literacy is related to health disparities is of interest. According to its vision statement, “NIMHD envisions an America in which all populations will have an equal opportunity to live long, healthy and productive lives,” and its mission is “to lead scientific research to improve minority health and reduce health disparities” (NIMDH, n.d.). This supplement is the second CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR). 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